To this day there has never existed a bureaucracy which could compare with that of Egypt. —Max Weber (1909)

The Great Pyramid at Giza

The Great Pyramid is the last of the Seven Wonders of the World. It contains at least 2.3 million stone blocks, each weighing, on the average, two and a half tons. Each of its bases is 230.4 meters long with an average error in length of only 58 millimeters. Its sides are oriented toward the four cardinal compass points within 4 minutes of an arc. The pyramid’s height was originally 146.5 meters, making it the tallest man-made structure on Earth for more than three millennia. The ratio of its perimeter to height is very close to 2π, though archaeologists disagree over whether this was an intentional part of the design or an unintended result of the means of construction. But either way, the Great Pyramid remains a technological marvel. Lately some have thought it a little too marvelous to be a merely human construction, and they have argued that the Egyptians had extraterrestrial help. And so, unfortunately, the question, “Who really built the pyramids?” is now mixed up with the more important question, “Why were they built at all?”

Did Aliens Build the Pyramids?

Wally T. Wallington is not an alien or even a Man-In-Black. He’s from Michigan and did carpentry and construction work for 35 years. Now he’s building a full-scale replica of Stonehenge in his back yard. He claims he could reproduce the Great Pyramid too, using only primitive tools and fewer than a thousand men. He may be on to something. A YouTube video shows him single-handedly moving and raising huge blocks of concrete with the help of stones, sticks, and sand. He describes his plan for building a pyramid on his website:

With tongue in cheek, he assures us that neither levitation nor alien assistance is necessary. Whether Wally’s methods are exactly those of the pharaohs, we may never know. But he makes a good case for ordinary “terrestrial” builders.

Back to Why Were They Built

What was the purpose of the pyramids? The traditional answer is that they were ridiculously expensive tombs for Egypt’s pharaohs. But some older writers had other suggestions. The pyramids were, they say, a barrier against the desert sands, or a water purification system, or granaries for the pharaoh’s wheat, or a depository of ancient wisdom prepared against the coming Flood. In the modern era, scholars and pseudo-scholars have offered still more suggestions: that the Great Pyramid is laid out as a standard of divinely sanctioned weights and measures, featuring a “pyramid inch” nearly equivalent to our own; that the measurements of the Pyramid contain a divine prophecy of European history, always accurate to the most recent century; that the pyramids collectively form an image or map of particular stars and that the Egyptians built the pyramids as landing markers for alien spacecraft.

Archaeological discovery, accurate measurement, sound theology, and the sufficiency of human builders eliminate some of the clutter. Aliens are out. So is divine intervention: the God of the Bible doesn’t waste His time with inaccurate pyramid prophecy. There is now solid evidence that the Great Pyramid was indeed built by King Khufu. And while we can grant that the ancient Egyptians had a working knowledge of geometry and astronomy, we should be slow to expect too much information from the pyramids’ dimensions or alignments. We should, for example, ask modern pyramidologists for more precise correlations between the dimensions of the Great Pyramid and, say, the distance to the sun or the landmass of the Earth before we buy into their theories, let alone buy their books.

But when we speak of the real purpose of the pyramids, we should dig a little deeper. Men usually take on huge projects for more than one reason. To assign just one motive to the Crusades or the New Deal or the building of the Suez Canal would be to seriously distort history and misread human character. Religious, political, and financial motivations may well go hand in hand. And the public reason for anything may not be the reason that really drives the undertakers. We can believe the traditional archaeologists when they say that the pyramids were meant to be tombs or at least potential tombs. That doesn’t mean the pharaohs didn’t have other motives—and perhaps significantly more important ones.

The Sacred Mountain

The pyramids, like the Tower of Babel before them, are working theology, worldview if you will, set in stone. For a pyramid is a man-made mountain, and the noun and adjective here are both relevant. The Garden of Eden had rested on a mountain (Ezek. 28:13-16), and there God had met with man in Paradise. Babel was a man-made counterfeit. Its top was to be “unto heaven” (Gen. 11:4); that is, it was supposed to be a way for man to reach the divine by his own efforts and on his own terms. The pyramids carry much the same message. Man can rise out of the chaos that surrounds him and, by his own efforts, make himself and his society divine.

This was the symbol. But for pagan religion, there is no final distinction between the symbolic and the magical. Magic is accomplished, in part, through visual symbols (images) and symbolic actions (rituals). In symbolizing the deification of the pharaoh, so the Egyptians believed, the pyramids actually helped make it possible. The pyramids were staircases to heaven, to deification in the afterlife. In that magical sense, they were gateways to the stars.

A Means to Another End?

But magic ought to be cheaper and, for that matter, simpler—and it usually is. Most people like their miracles cheap. We ought to suspect that the pharaohs had ulterior motives in the construction of these huge, magical tombs. Physicist Kurt Mendelssohn picked up a clue to those motives when he discovered that the pharaoh Snofru, the first king of the 4th Dynasty, built three pyramids during his 29 year reign and that their construction times overlapped considerably. This overlap became evident to Mendelssohn when he realized that the design flaw that had collapsed the first pyramid late in its construction had been corrected in the second, but at a point where the second was half way built and 70% of its stones already laid. That is, construction of the second was well underway before the first was finished. Snofru still had time to construct a third pyramid before he died.

Practically, this means that Snofur kept his laborers busy year after year without a slow down. Obviously, he was concerned with more than tomb. When a king chooses to employ tens of thousands of seasonal workers decade after decade in a public works program, he will run into serious economic and sociological complications. After all, he will have to feed, clothe, and house these workers three months a year. And the workers themselves, being constantly employed away from their villages, will begin to adopt new attitudes towards their king, themselves, and one another. So what were Snofru and his successors really up to?

The MegaMachine

Mendelssohn argues that the social change was itself the goal, or one of the major goals, behind pyramid construction. Writing in the book The Riddle of the Pyramids (Thames and Hudson, 1974) Mendelssohn, says this:

In the course of ten or twenty years of construction, a large section of the working population came under the jurisdiction of a central administration which completely regulated its life. It was this new central administration which had now become responsible for their livelihood and to whom they had become answerable instead of to their tribal council and the village elders (145).

Pyramid building enabled the early pharaohs to reshape Egyptian life and culture into a monolithic national state over which they ruled supreme, not only in theory, but in fact. But in order to accomplish this, in order to build true pyramids at all, they first had to create a powerful, detail-sensitive bureaucracy that could convey, unaltered, the specific commands of the Pharaoh down a human chain to the skilled and non-skilled laborers who made up the work gangs. Public works programs whose products vary from their original specifications by a fiftieth of an inch must be directed by tightly run, unimaginative bureaucracies. The bureaucracy these pharaohs created and the work program it oversaw had the efficiency of a complex, well-oiled machine.

Writer and social philosopher Lewis Mumford has called Egypt “The First MegaMachine” (Diogenes, Fall 1966). Whereas Mendelssohn leaves some room for personal pride and camaraderie in the operation of this human machine, Mumford sees the whole mega-machine as inherently dehumanizing. He believes that it can only function when men are reduced to cogs. “The removal of the human dimensions and organic limits is indeed the chief boast of the authoritarian machine…. This administrative method ideally requires a studious repression of all the autonomous functions of the personality, and a readiness to perform the daily task with ritual exactitude.”

Ritual exactitude. Mumford has in mind the mindless, repetitive rituals and spells of Egyptian religion. In other words, the Egyptian religion of ritual magic conditioned the Egyptian people to ritual-like work for the greater glory of their divine king.

“Why?” Again

Recent arguments about the who of the pyramids have obscured the far more relevant question of why. Mendelssohn writes:

Once it is realized that the main object of pyramid construction was a work programme leading to a new social order, the religious meaning and ritual importance of the pyramid recede into the background. If anything, these man-made mountains are a monument to the progress of man into a new pattern of life, the national state, which was to become his social home for the next 5000 years.

The pyramids were more than a magical means of deifying a deceased pharaoh; their construction was a practical means of giving that pharaoh total power over Egypt during his lifetime. Their construction was a public works program designed to create a statist society. Mendelssohn continues:

The pyramids do not represent an aim in itself but the means to achieve an end: the creation of a new form of society. These huge heaps of stone mark the place where man invented the state.

That Egyptian state was bureaucratic, socialistic, and totalitarian, very much like Egypt today. Public works programs have always had rather large price tags as well as totalitarian aims. As we enter the next great depression and unemployment rates rise to new heights, expect our Pharaoh to implement great public works campaigns designed to bring us together as a nation and accomplish “great things.” The left will herald this as freedom from poverty. Those with eyes to see will know it as a return to slavery, to the days of the pharaohs. The price tag: those of us working will come under the microscopic jurisdiction of a centralized, nationalized mega-machine which will completely regulate our lives.

The only way out of this coming hell on earth? Repent and return to Christ as the covenant head of our nation.

For Further Reading:

Kurt Mendelssohn, The Riddle of the Pyramids (London: Thames and Hudson, 1974).

Gary North, Moses and Pharaoh, Dominion Religion Versus Power Religion (Tyler, TX: The Institute for Christian Economics, 1985).

Lewis Mumford, “The First Megamachine” in Interpretations and Forecasts, 1922-1972 (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc., 1973).

Jason Colavito, “Who Built the Great Pyramid?” at Lost Civilizations Uncovered


  • WhiteRose Posted February 20, 2011 8:28 am

    “The duty of a patriot is to protect his country from it’s government”. Thomas Paine

    Greece/Tunis/Egypt/Bahrain & now in America, the People are standing up to tyranny.

    I just read a new thriller that’s about revolution coming to America. It’s a must read cause it’s so true for nowadays.

  • Tiburon man Posted March 6, 2011 5:53 pm

    I have spent over 30 years studying this and share something with all that’s not discussed in the above recap…:
    HOLY BIBLE King James Version-
    Isaiah Ch 19 vs19-20:
    ” In that day shall there be an alter to the LORD in the midst of the land of Egypt, and a pillar at the border thereof to the LORD” (20) And it shall be for a sigh and witness unto the LORD of hosts in the land of Egypt; ”

    The length of one side 365.2414 Pyramid inches. Exactly how many days there are in the year…
    Q.: How did they know this?
    Also, the basis of our weights and measures comes from the interior capacity of the sarcophagus in the Kings Chamber.

    It is a fascinating study for those interested.

  • islseur Posted March 16, 2011 2:34 pm

    I am a Christian, I live in Israel and have studied both the old testament (tanach) and new testament on Hebrew. While I believe in Jesus Christ and truly consider the ethical principles stated in the new testament to be in accordance with the laws of the universe. I must object to the conclusions made in this article about the origin of the pyramids.

    I really hope that this comment will not be deleted and the right of the people to free choice and therefore to freedom of information be respected.

    There are couple of assumptions made in this article which are not correct. One and the basic one is:
    “There is now solid evidence that the Great Pyramid was indeed built by King Khufu.”

    In Egyptology there are two factions of scientists.
    1. Those that believe in the above statement and try to prove the pharaohs build the pyramids.
    2. Those that believe that pharaohs could not build the great pyramid and couple of other highly sophisticated pyramids in Egypt because of the simple fact of technological level of society needed in order to build these pyramids.

    It is known that science is something that can’t be taken lightly when we speak about the material world. Mathematics, Physics, Geology, etc. have become very accurate in the last 100 years of human development. This brings us to this:

    There are scientifically examined physical facts that contradict official hypothesis of Pharaoh’s as the builders of the pyramids. Here are 2 links to the information (you can find many more by research):

    Who built the Pyramids ? part 1 (on English)

    There is latest movie made by Russian scientists called “MYSTERIES OF ANCIENT EGYPT”. Unfortunately no translation yet to English. Work on subtitles is in progress. This is VERY interesting. Here is the link:

    Summary on English of the “MYSTERIES OF ANCIENT EGYPT”.
    “RUSSIAN TEAM OF SCIENTISTS EXAMINED 7 PYRAMIDS IN EGYPT RED & BENT PYRAMIDS @ DAHSHUR, PYRAMID @ ABU ROACH, PYRAMID @ MEDUM & 3 PYRAMIDS @ GIZA. TEAM USED APPLIED ANALYSIS FOR THE STRUCTURAL COMPOSITION & SFRC TECHNOLOGIES USED IN MILITARY APPLICATIONS DURING THE CONSTRUCTION OF PYRAMIDS. TEAMS CONCLUSION: PHARAOHS & EGYPTIANS HAVE ABSOLUTELY NOTHING TO DO WITH THE CONSTRUCTION OF SPECIFIC 7 PYRAMIDS – RED & BENT PYRAMIDS @ DAHSHUR, PYRAMID @ ABU ROACH, PYRAMID @ MEDUM & 3 (INCLUDING GREAT) PYRAMIDS @ GIZA, PHARAOHS ARE ONLY RESPONSIBLE FOR THE RESTORATION & PARTIAL REBUILING OF GREATER 7 PYRAMIDS, WHICH WERE ERECTED BY CIVILIZATION WITH SUCH HIGH TECHNOLOGIES THAT SUPERSEDES OUR MODERN LEVEL OF TECHNOLOGICAL SOPHISTICATION. The Great Pyramid is humanity’s greatest architectural achievement. Two and a half million blocks, ranging in size from two to seventy tons a piece, were used in the construction of this silent sentinel of the past, the largest and perhaps the most enigmatic of the three matching structures on the Giza plateau. It covers an area of 13 acres and weighs an incredible six million tons, and up until the construction of the Eiffel Tower, it was the tallest structure in the world. There is more stone in the Great Pyramid than in all the churches, chapels and cathedrals built in England. Yet this wonder of the past is more than just an architectural curiosity, for it embodies a level of sophistication far superior to anything the world has produced at any time since this age. There is a hardcore of evidence which shows that the pyramid builders were privy to universal knowledge far beyond that accredited to the ancient Egyptians who lived around 4500 years ago, the time-frame in which the pyramids are said to have been built. The Great Pyramid is considered to have been built as an exact geodesic representation of the earth’s NORTHERN hemisphere. Precision geometry incorporating harmonics, proportions and sound acoustics was incorporated into its exterior and interior design. Its four sides are aligned to the cardinal points with such precision that modern-day surveyors would have trouble replicating this laser-like accuracy, while in relation to the earth the Great Pyramid is situated in the dead centre of its largest land-mass. The recent geological surveys of the Great Sphinx have revealed that the weathering effects visible on its body, and on the nearby enclosure wall, were caused not by wind, as the Egyptologists believe, but by water precipitation – in other words, rain. Lots of it, over a very, very long period of time. Such a supposition creates insurmountable problems for the academics as it is known that the last time Egypt produced enough rain to have created such raging torrents of water was during the 3000-year stretch between 8000 and 5000 BC. More damning still to the orthodox views of the Egyptologists is the knowledge that recent astronomical research in respect to the orientation and placement of the monuments on the Giza plateau, clearly point towards a foundation date sometime between 11,000 and 9000 BC – several thousand years before the age of the Pharaohs. There is much evidence of prehistoric man along the Nile during this very age, and it clearly shows that between ~12,500 and ~9500 BC (& ~26,000 and ~12,000 BC, or even much earlier) certain communities not only possessed an advanced tool-making industry, but also domesticated animals and developed the earliest agriculture anywhere in the world. Moreover, just 300 miles away from Giza in what is today Jericho, its inhabitants of 8000 BC were constructing enormous fortification walls, gouging out vast trenches in the hard bedrock and erecting a gigantic stone tower in defense against an unknown enemy. Engineering projects on this scale would have required a high level of social structure and coordinated operations. No one can say that humanity in this distant age did not have the ability to carve the image of a 240-feet long recumbent lion, and yet accepting this hypothesis brings with it an even greater problem. Since the core limestone blocks – many up to 100 ton a piece – used in the construction of the Valley Temple, the Sphinx Temple, as well as at least one other similar structure on the Giza plateau, were extracted from the Sphinx enclosure; we must concede that these too date to this same distant epoch. If this is the case, then the Pharaohs of the pyramid age merely restored these enormous temple structures, which begs the question of who exactly did build them?”

    Good Luck.

  • HOMMER ASSUMPTION? Posted April 9, 2011 2:01 pm

    There are two other reasons why it was built.

    1. It was a telescocpe and
    2. Its design and alignment with Magnetic North causes the pyramid to irradiate the contents of the chamber.

    1. Although he does not do the subject justice Thompkins book on the great pyramids is very interesting. He explains that the grand gallery was allgned with the North Star and that it was specifically placed at its location near the equator so that the astronamers could see both the stars of the Morthern Hemisphere and the Southern. Intersting to find that the base of the pyramid is not straight but slightly curved inward. This curvature is exacly the curvature of the Earth at the Equator or the fact that the height of the pyramid is exactly the same height as the aggregate mean height of all of the land masses on Earth. How are these measurements possible to be known at that time? We know that the people of that time were very well educated in Astronomy and there is very convincing evidence to demonstrate that people of far greater antiquity were well versed as well (See the only book on which discusses Archio-astronomy – written by a French Athiest). Other books (God’s Voice in the Stars and others. However, GVITS is the best for lay people) indicate that before man had a written language the propheies of the Bible (HIS-story) were written in the Stars (pictographs). This book is very convincing and points out that the constellations bear the same name in literally every language on the Earth. How is that possible without the internet? There is other massive amounts of evidence in this and other more technical books on the subject that are available. Also, a good read The Hummingbird and the Hawk: conquest in meso-America, gives an account of Cortez’s historians discovering that the Aztec (savages? who also built pyramids) were far more advanced in astronomy than their European counterparts. Thompkins explains that the builders of the pyramids used primative telescopes which were basically “star wells.” For those of you who do not know, if you go down 20 feet or more in a well, you can look up and see the stars – during the daytime. The grand gallery was specifically designed with its serious of elevatoins in the shaft to assist them in charting the stars. Of course this could not be done without a clock which they had, although primitive (water clock).

    2. For some unexplainable reason, and no body seems to be able to explain why at this time, the shape of the pyramid and its alignment with magnetic North absorbs radiation. Therefore, the Egyptians radiated their wheat so that it would not be eaten by insects; Many of you may remember that there was a drive to irradiate food sometime back and its selling point was as a remarkable preservative. A patten has been issued to a Eastern European man for a pyramid milk carton design that when aligned properly with magnetic North keeps milk fresh at room temprature for two weeks. Mine in my frig doesn’t even last a week. This is all very interesting informatoin that is not really that easy to find – you have to look for it. So, if you are going to talk about pyramids, you should. Keep in mind, my comments are not intended to school you, because I consider myself an idiot. The more I know, the less I realize I know.
    Also deserving nonorable mention are those that believe that the Great Pyramid is the Pilar of Enoch. Using the angles and the measurements of the pyramid gives the exact angle and distance to the city of Bethleham, where Christ was born. Taking this into consideration, with the allegatoins that there was a super nova in the Costellation Virgo at the time of the birth of Christ, this could all very easily fit into a very workable scenario. There has also been considerable comment of the fact that Egypt is controlled by Muslems and this is why foreigners are blocked from entering the Sphinx, because they believe that it contains evidence that supports Christianity – not that it needs any further support.

    Enjoyed reading your article. Keep up the good work and, of course, don’t stop researching the great mystery’s of life – its fun and can be very educationsl.

  • Posted April 10, 2011 8:46 pm

    Just wait till May 21st. Thats all!

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